What is Heart Failure in Children?
The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. When you have heart failure, the heart is not able to pump as well as it should. Blood and fluid may back up into the lungs (congestive heart failure), and some parts of the body don’t get enough oxygen-rich blood to work normally. These problems lead to the symptoms of heart failure.
What Causes Heart Failure in a Child
The most common cause of heart failure in children is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). Other causes include:
- Heart muscle disease or enlargement of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
- Decrease in the blood supply to the heart (ischemia). This is rare in children.
- Heart valve disease
- Irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias)
- Low red blood cell count (anemia)
- Medicine side effects, especially from drugs used to treat cancer
What are the Symptoms of Heart Failure in a Child?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:
- Swelling (edema) of the feet, ankles, lower legs, belly, liver, and neck veins
- Trouble breathing, especially with activity including rapid breathing, wheezing, or excessive coughing
- Poor feeding and weight gain (in infants)
- Feeling tired
- Excessive sweating while feeding, playing, or exercising
Older children may also have:
- Weight gain
- Passing out
How severe the symptoms are depend on how much of the heart’s pumping ability is affected.
The symptoms of heart failure can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is Heart Failure Diagnosed in Children?
Your child’s healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. The provider will look for signs and symptoms that may mean heart failure. If the provider thinks your child has heart failure, your child may need to see a pediatric cardiologist. This is a doctor with special training to diagnose and treat heart problems in children. Tests for heart failure may include:
- Blood and urine tests. Abnormal results may help find heart failure.
- Chest X-ray. The X-ray may show heart and lung changes.
- Electrocardiography (ECG). The ECG may show changes in the heart’s rhythm.
- Echocardiography (echo). Ultrasound waves are used to study the motion of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo may show changes caused by heart failure.
- Cardiac catheterization. The doctor puts a small, flexible tube (catheter) into a blood vessel and moves it to the heart. This measures pressure and oxygen levels inside the heart.
How is Heart Failure in a Child Treated?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
If heart failure is caused by a congenital heart defect, correcting the defect may cure heart failure.
Medicines are often used to treat heart failure in children. They may include:
- Digoxin. This is a medicine that can help the heart beat stronger with a more regular rhythm.
- Water pills (diuretics). These help the kidneys get rid of extra fluid that may build up in the body.
- ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. These medicines help open the blood vessels and lower blood pressure. This makes it easier for your child’s heart to pump blood to the body.
- Beta blockers. These help lower the heart rate and blood pressure. This also makes it easier for the heart to pump blood to the body.
Other treatments include:
- Pacemaker. Some children with heart failure need an artificial pacemaker. The pacemaker may help when the heart is not pumping well because of a slow heartbeat.
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy. This uses a special type of pacemaker. This treatment may be used in some children with long-term heart failure.
- Heart transplant. Children with severe heart failure may be helped with special devices and equipment. These may be used while a child is waiting for a heart transplant.
Children may also need the help of a nutritionist who can help with feeding and managing fluids. Older children may benefit from an exercise rehab program.
For more information on cardiovascular disorders and treatment options available, talk to your doctor or visit chnola.org/heartcenter.
Dr. Kiran Mallula specializes in Congenital Interventional Cardiology at Children’s Hospital. He received his medical degree from Osmania Medical College and Kakatiya Medical College in India. He completed his residency training at Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He then completed fellowships in Pediatric Cardiology at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and Interventional Cardiology at the University of California and Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego.
Dr. Mallula serves as an Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatric Cardiology at LSU Health New Orleans and is fluent in English, Hindi, Telugu and Sanskrit. When asked why he chose Congenital Interventional Cardiology as his specialty, Dr. Mallula said, “It is amazing to see the resilience of children with congenital heart disease and learn from them about all the hurdles in life that can be overcome. It is one of those subspecialties where a long-lasting physician/patient/family bond exists, as some of these patients grow up to become young adults during their follow-up care. The immense satisfaction one achieves from treating some of these conditions via a catheter-based approach is boundless.”